Ph.D. Liliya Euro tells about the fundamentals of all four NADs. She takes also a look into the pathways where NADs are involved.


Ph.D. Liliya Euro talks about measuring NADs. What options are there and what is suitable for different purposes.


Ph.D. Liliya Euro discribes how to prepare samples for NADMED measuring. All sample types are included in this presentation.


Ph. D. Liliya Euro tackles the questions about optimal NAD levels, how to define them, and very interesting facts about dried blood and NADs.

Suggested reading

Pirinen et al 2020. Niacin Cures Systemic NAD+ Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy

The study reports that niacin, a vitamin B3, can efficiently rescue NAD+ levels in the muscle and blood of patients with mitochondrial myopathy, improving disease signs and muscle strength. NAD+ levels increased also in healthy subjects. The evidence suggests that niacin is
an effective NAD+ booster in humans.

Brakedal et al 2021. The NADPARK study: A randomized phase I trial of nicotinamide riboside supplementation in Parkinson’s disease

Researchers from Haukeland University Hospital conducted a phase I trial of NAD-
replenishment therapy with oral nicotinamide riboside (NR) in Parkinson’s disease (PD). NR increased cerebral NAD levels, and this was associated with altered brain metabolism and clinical improvement. The findings nominate NR as a potential neuroprotective treatment
for PD.

U-Din et al 2023. Cold-stimulated brown adipose tissue activation is related to changes in serum metabolites relevant to NAD+ metabolism in humans

This study investigated cold-activated brown adipose tissue in humans in relation to metabolic health. The data showed NAD+ metabolism is activated upon cold in humans, with a positive correlation to markers of metabolic health.

Beltrà et al 2023. NAD+repletion with niacin counteracts cancer cachexia

The study that NAD+ repletion, using vitamin B3 niacin, efficiently corrects tissue NAD+ levels. Therapy that was used in cachectic mice also improved mitochondrial metabolism, and ameliorated cancer- and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Overall, the results propose NAD+ metabolism as a therapy target for cachectic cancer patients.

Liu et al 2023. Association of NAD+ levels with metabolic disease in a community-based study

In this study, whole blood NAD+ levels were measured from almost 1400 individuals who were divided into four groups based on their NAD+ level quartiles. Investigation revealed that increased NAD+ levels are significantly associated with metabolic diseases.

Lapatto et al 2023. Nicotinamide riboside improves muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, satellite cell differentiation, and gut microbiota in a twin study

20 monozygotic twins were supplemented with NR for 5 months to find out long-term NAD supplementation effects. Among other things, NR improved systemic NAD+ metabolism and muscle mitochondrial number but did not ameliorate adiposity or metabolic health.

Yang et al 2022. Association of Human Whole Blood NAD+Contents With Aging

Investigation about the association between human whole blood NAD+ contents and aging in a relatively large-scale community-based population and also the gender impact on this association. The results showed a slight decline in NAD levels among the male population.

Freeberg et al. 2023 Dietary supplementation with NAD+-boosting compounds in humans: Current knowledge and future directions

A review that discusses the published literature on the effects of chronic oral supplementation with NAD+ precursors on healthy aging and age-related chronic diseases.

Breton et al 2020. Blood NAD levels are reduced in very old patients hospitalized for heart failure

This study highlights a diminution of NAD blood levels for elderly patients hospitalized for decompensated heart failure in comparison to a healthy population. 

Li et al 2023. The acute effect of different NAD+ precursors included in the combined metabolic activators

This study provided a plasma metabolomic landscape of different CMA formulations and proposed that CMAs with Nam, NMN, as NR can be administered to boost NAD+ levels to improve altered metabolic conditions.

Wuerch et al 2023. The Promise of Niacin in Neurology

A NAD+ booster Niacin is discussed as a potential therapy for ameliorating neuropathology and alleviating neurological impairment in neurological disorders e.g., MS, AD, PD, and ALS.

Idazpanah et al 2023. SARS-CoV-2 infection dysregulates NAD metabolism

This study conducted in mice showed that COVID-19 infection dysregulated NAD pathways.

Sun et al. 2023. NAD depletion mediates cytotoxicity in human neurons with autophagy deficiency

The paper describes how autophagy-deficient (ATG-/-) hESC-derived neurons exhibit basal cytotoxicity and metabolic defects that are turn detrimental to the cells upon NAD depletion. On the contrary, boosting intracellular NAD levels improves the cell viability.

Perez-Sanchez et al 2023. Preclinical characterization of pharmacological NAD+ boosting as a promising therapeutic approach in Rheumatoid Arthritis

It was shown that rheumatoid arthritis patients had reduced NAD+ levels along with altered activity and expression of NAD+ consuming proteins. The lowest NAD+ levels concurred with the highest inflammatory profile, and an ex vivo study with patients’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that NR and NAM increased NAD+ levels and reduced the pro-inflammatory status.

Kaplanis et al 2023. Nicotinamide enhances myelin production after demyelination through reduction of astrogliosis and microgliosis

The study was conducted with murine cortical slices but it showed clear myelination and remyelination ex vivo after NAM treatment. Also, the amount of pro-inflammatory astrocytes was reduced. It was concluded that NAM influences astrocytes and microglia directly promoting a less inflammatory environment.

Freeberg et al 2023. NAD+-boosting compounds enhance nitric oxide production and prevent oxidative stress in endothelial cells exposed to plasma from patients with COVID-19.

The results of this study suggest that the circulating milieu of patients with COVID-19 promotes endothelial cell dysfunction, characterized by lower NO bioavailability, greater ROS bioactivity, and NAD+ depletion. Thus, supplementation with NAD+ precursors may exert a protective effect against COVID-19.

Metcalfe et al 2023. Elevation of NAD+ by nicotinamide riboside spares spinal cord tissue from injury and promotes locomotor recovery

Study investigated the effects of NAD precursor NR on spinal cord injury and concluded that administering NR, a precursor of NAD+, increases NAD+ within the injured spinal cord and effectively mitigates the tissue damage and functional decline that occurs following SCI.

Borsky et al 2023. Evaluation of potential aging biomarkers in healthy individuals: telomerase, AGEs, GDF11/15, sirtuin 1, NAD+, NLRP3, DNA/RNA damage, and klotho

This study investigated potential biomarkers of aging and did not find significant differences in NAD+ levels between the groups.  Thus, NAD+ is not a predictive marker of aging.

Smits et al 2023. Human ovarian aging is characterized by oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction

Oxidative damage was found in oocytes of advanced maternal age, specifically in mitochondrial function as demonstrated by NAD+, purine, and pyrimidine depletion. Future studies with NAD+ precursor supplementation are warranted.

Ge et al 2023. Reductive stress in cancer: coming out of the shadows

This review discusses redox-based pathways gaining recognition as essential “regulatory hubs” that are revealing new insights into metabolic homeostasis in cancer.

Baichuan et al 2023. The effects of NAD+ precursor supplementation on weight loss and related hormones: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials

This systematic review investigated the effects of NAD+ precursor supplementation on weight loss, concluding that NAD+ precursors indeed had significant effects on weight management with the reduction of BMI.

Presterud et al 2023. Long-term nicotinamide riboside use improves coordination and eye movements in ataxia telangiectasia

This clinical trial investigated the safety and benefits of long-term NR supplementation in individuals with ataxia telangiectasia. It was shown that long-term use of NR appeared safe and well tolerated and it improved motor coordination and eye movements in patients with A-T independent from the age.